Two Examples of Taxonomies of Educational Outcomes

Bloom's Taxonomy of Intended Learning Outcomes

 
Knowledge
  • is defined as the remembering of previously learned material
  • represents the lowest level of learning
  • involves recalling or reciting: facts, observations, or definitions
Comprehension
  • is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material
  • represents the lowest level of understanding
  • involves explaining, interpreting, or translating
Application
  • refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations
  • requires higher level of understanding than comprehension
  • involves applying: rules, methods, laws, principles
Analysis
  • refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood
  • represents a higher level than previous categories because of requirement of understanding of both the content and structural form of the material
  • involves analyzing relationships, distinguishing between facts and inferences, evaluating data relevance
Synthesis
  • refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole
  • represents creative behaviors, with emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures
  • involves proposing plans, writing speeches, creating classification schema
Evaluation
  • is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose
  • represents highest level because of inclusion of elements of all other categories plus conscious value judgments based on criteria
  • involves judging logical consistency, adequacy of data support for conclusions

 

Feisel-Schmitz Technical Taxonomy of Intended Learning Outcomes

 
Judge: To be able to critically evaluate multiple solutions and select an optimum solution
Solve: Characterize, analyze, and synthesize to model a system (provide appropriate assumptions)
Explain: Be able to state the outcome/concept in their own words
Compute: Follow rules and procedures (substitute quantities correctly into equations and arrive at a correct result, Plug & Chug)
Define: State the definition of the concept or is able to describe in a qualitative or quantitative manner

Made available by:
Diane Soderholm, Ph.D., Instructional Designer
MIT Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
2005