Varied Teaching Methods

GuidelineUse multiple teaching methods and modes of instruction.

There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and preferences for learning to college. Students need opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z., “Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education”, AAHE Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 7 (1987).

Vary your teaching strategies, assignments and learning activities.  For example, give students opportunities to do group work as well as to work alone.  Provide options for assignments:  written papers, oral reports and videotapes.  Present the same information in several modes (lecture, reading, audiovisual materials, and hands-on activities).

Davis, Barbara Gross, Tools for Teaching, San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass, 1993.

American Psychological Association.  Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform.  Washington, DC, American Psychological Association (1992).


Additional References

Eble, K.E., The Craft of Teaching (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass, 1988.

Biggs, J., Student Approaches to Learning and Studying, Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn, VIC (1987).

Bransford, John D., Brown, Ann L., and Cocking, Rodney R. (eds.), How People Learn:  Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Washington, DC:  National Academy Press, 1999.

DeWinstanley, Patricia Ann and Bjork, Robert A., “Successful Learning: Presenting Information in Ways that Engage Effective Processing,” in D.F. Halpern and M.D. Hakel (eds.), Applying the Science of Learning to University Teaching and Beyond, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 89.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass, 2000, pp. 19-31.

Entwhistle, N., Styles of Learning and Teaching: An Integrated Outline of Educational Psychology for Students, Teachers and Lecturers, John Wiley, Chichester (1981).

Kolb, D., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Prentice-Hall, NJ (1984).

Manner, B., “Learning studies and multiple intelligences in students: getting the most out of your students’ learning”, Journal of College Science Teaching, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 390-393 (2001).

Meo, S.A., Shahabuddin, S., Al Masri, A.A., Ahmed, S.M., Aqil, M., Anwer, M.A., Al-Drees, A.M., Comparison of the impact of powerpoint and chalkboard in undergraduate medical teaching: an evidence based study.  J Coll Physicians Surg Pak., 23(1), 47-50, (2013). doi: 01.2013/JCPSP.4750.

Shallcross, D.E., Harrison, T.E.  Lectures: electronic presentations versus chalk and talk – a chemist’s view.  Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 8(1), 73-79 (2007).

Smith, J., “Learning styles: fashion fad or lever for change? The application of learning style theory to inclusive curriculum delivery”, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 63-70 (2002).

Svinicki, M.D., “Practical Implications of Cognitive Theories.”  In R.J. Menges and M.D. Svinicki (eds.), College Teaching from Theory to Practice, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 45.  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass, 1991.

Svinicki, M.D. and Dixon, N.M., “Kolb Model Modified for Classroom Activities.”  College Teaching, Vol. 35, No. 4, 141-146 (1987).


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